Etymology of scientific names

On this page we attempt to explain the etymologies of the scientific names of the 41 genera and 134 species on our European checklist.

The list below draws heavily on the 1997 publication Die Bedeutung der wissenschaftlichen Namen europäischer Libellen by Heinrich Fliedner. We would like to thank the author of that publication for his very generous support and kind assistance in improving the accuracy of the list below. It goes without saying that any remaining inaccuracies are entirely our own responsibility. (Rev. 1.4; November 2020)

#SpeciesName: GenusName: Species
1Lestes sponsaLestes: Leach, 1815
from Grk. λῃστής = robber, thief
Lestes sponsa (Hansemann, 1823)
from Lat. sponsa = bride, betrothed
2Lestes dryasLestes dryas Kirby, 1890
after Δρυάς, a tree nymph in Greek mythology
3Lestes macrostigmaLestes macrostigma (Eversmann, 1836)
from Grk. μακρός, , -όν = long, large +
στίγμα = mark, spot
⮎ for the large pterostigma
4Lestes barbarusLestes barbarus (Fabricius, 1798)
after the Barbary coastal region of North Africa ('Barbaria' in Fabricius' description), from where the specimens he described originated
5Lestes virensLestes virens (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. virere, pres. part. virens = (being) green
6Chalcolestes viridisChalcolestes: Kennedy, 1920
from Grk. χαλκός = copper, bronze +
λῃστής = robber, thief
Chalcolestes viridis (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Lat. viridis, -is, -e = green
7Chalcolestes parvidensChalcolestes parvidens (Artobolevsky, 1929)
from Lat. parvus, -a, -um = small +
dens = tooth
⮎ for the male's small inner subapical tooth
8Sympecma fuscaSympecma: Burmeister, 1839
misread from Charpentier's proposed name Sympycna from Grk. σύμπυκνος = pressed together
⮎ for the habit of folding the wings together when at rest (unlike Lestes species)
Sympecma fusca (Vander Linden, 1820)
from Lat. fuscus, -a, -um = dark brown, tawny
9Sympecma paediscaSympecma paedisca (Brauer, 1877)
from Grk. παιδίσκη = young girl, maiden
10Calopteryx splendensCalopteryx: Leach, 1815
from Grk. καλός = beautiful +
πτέρυξ = wing
Calopteryx splendens (Harris, 1780)
from Lat. splendere, pres. part. splendens = shining, glittering
⮎ for the glittering blue/green body colours
11Calopteryx xanthostomaCalopteryx xanthostoma (Charpentier, 1825)
from Grk. ξανθός, , -όν = yellow +
στόμα = mouth
⮎ for the yellow mouth parts (as opposed to white, as in all other Calopteryx species then known to Charpentier)
12Calopteryx virgoCalopteryx virgo (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. virgo = maiden, virgin
13Calopteryx haemorrhoidalisCalopteryx haemorrhoidalis (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Grk. αἱμορροίδες = haemorrhoids
[αἷμα = blood + ῥέω = to flow]
Lat. -alis, -alis, -ale = pertaining to
⮎ for the red underside of the male's last three abdominal segments
14Epallage fatimeEpallage: Charpentier, 1840
from Grk. ἐπαλλαγή = 'mutual connection'
⮎ regarded by Charpentier as a link between the families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae
Epallage fatime (Charpentier, 1840)
after Fatimah (609-632), daughter of Muhammad
15Platycnemis pennipesPlatycnemis: Burmeister, 1839
from Grk. πλατύς = wide +
κνημίς = greave, shin-pad
Platycnemis pennipes (Pallas, 1771)
from Lat. penna = feather +
pes = foot, leg
⮎ for the wide tibiae and bristly legs
16Platycnemis acutipennisPlatycnemis acutipennis Selys, 1841
from Lat. acutus, -a, -um = pointed +
penna = feather, wing
⮎ for the narrower and more pointed wings (compared to P. pennipes)
17Platycnemis latipesPlatycnemis latipes Rambur, 1842
from Lat. latus, -a, -um = broad +
pes = foot, leg
⮎ for the noticeably broader shins, especially in the male (compared to P. pennipes)
18Ischnura elegansIschnura: Charpentier, 1840
from Grk. ἰσχνός = thin, slender +
οὐρά = tail
⮎ for the slender abdomen (compared to e.g. Calopteryx species)
Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden, 1820)
from Lat. elegans = elegant
19Ischnura geneiIschnura genei (Rambur, 1842)
after Carlo Giuseppe Genè (1800-1847), Italian naturalist
20Ischnura graellsiiIschnura graellsii (Rambur, 1842)
after Mariano de la Paz Graells y de la Agüera (1809-1898), the Spanish entomologist who discovered the species
21Ischnura saharensisIschnura saharensis Aguesse, 1958
after the Sahara desert
22Ischnura fountaineaeIschnura fountaineae Morton, 1905
after Margaret Elizabeth Fountaine (1862-1940), English entomologist
23Ischnura senegalensisIschnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842)
after the West-African country of Senegal
24Ischnura pumilioIschnura pumilio (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. pumilio = dwarf
⮎ the smallest species then known to Charpentier
25Ischnura intermediaIschnura intermedia Dumont, 1974
from Lat. intermedius, -a, -um = intermediate
⮎ for the species' characters which are intermediate between I. pumilio and I. forcipata
26Ischnura hastataIschnura hastata (Say, 1839)
from Lat. hastatus, -a, -um = equipped with a spear
⮎ for the spear-shaped spots and lines on the male's S3-S7
27Enallagma cyathigerumEnallagma: Charpentier, 1840
from Grk. ἐνάλλαγμα = (risk of) confusion
⮎ originally intended as a genus to subsume all (potentially confusing) Bluet species
Enallagma cyathigerum (Charpentier, 1840)
from Grk. κύαθος = cup, beaker +
Lat. -ger, -gera, -gerum = -bearing
⮎ for the cup-shaped mark on the male's S2
28Coenagrion pulchellumCoenagrion: Kirby, 1890
from Grk. κοινός = common, widespread +
ἄγριος = wild, living in the fields
Coenagrion pulchellum (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Lat. pulcher, dimin. pulchellus, -a, -um = pretty
29Coenagrion puellaCoenagrion puella (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. puella = girl, maiden
30Coenagrion intermediumCoenagrion intermedium Lohmann, 1990
from Lat. intermedius, -a, -um = intermediate
⮎ for the species' characters which are intermediate between C. ponticum and C. syriacum
31Coenagrion mercurialeCoenagrion mercuriale (Charpentier, 1840)
after the Mercury symbol (☿)
⮎ for the shape of the black mark on the male's S2
32Coenagrion ornatumCoenagrion ornatum (Selys, 1850)
from Lat. ornatus, -a, -um = ornate, adorned
33Coenagrion scitulumCoenagrion scitulum (Rambur, 1842)
from Lat. scitus, dimin. scitulus, -a, -um = elegant, neat
34Coenagrion caerulescensCoenagrion caerulescens (Fonscolombe, 1838)
from Lat. caerulescere, pres. part. caerulescens = becoming blue, somewhat blue
⮎ for the paler blue colour in this species compared to e.g. C. pulchellum
35Coenagrion hastulatumCoenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. hastulatus, -a, -um = equipped with a little spear
⮎ for the spear-shaped mark on the male's S2
36Coenagrion lunulatumCoenagrion lunulatum (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. lunulatus, -a, -um = equipped with a little moon
⮎ for the crescent-shaped mark on the male's S2
37Coenagrion hylasCoenagrion hylas (Trybom, 1889)
after Ὕλας, Heracles' companion and servant who was abducted by water nymphs in Greek mythology
38Coenagrion johanssoniCoenagrion johanssoni (Wallengren, 1894)
after Carl Hans Johanson (1828-1908), Swedish naturalist
39Coenagrion armatumCoenagrion armatum (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. armatus, -a, -um = armed
⮎ presumably for the male's very large lower appendages
40Erythromma najasErythromma: Charpentier, 1840
from Grk. ἐρυθρός = red +
ὄμμα = eye
Erythromma najas (Hansemann, 1823)
after Ναιάς = Naiad, a freshwater nymph in Greek mythology
41Erythromma viridulumErythromma viridulum (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. viridulus, -a, -um = somewhat green
⮎ presumably for the greenish reflections on the black parts of the abdomen
42Erythromma lindeniiErythromma lindenii (Selys, 1840)
after Pierre Léonard Vander Linden (1797-1831), Belgian entomologist
43Pyrrhosoma nymphulaPyrrhosoma: Charpentier, 1840
from Grk. πυρρός = fiery red +
σῶμα = body
Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer, 1776)
dimin. of Grk. νύμφη, Lat. nympha = little bride, newly-wed
44Pyrrhosoma elisabethaePyrrhosoma elisabethae Schmidt, 1948
after Elisabeth Ris (1872-1959), sister of Friedrich Ris (1867-1931), Swiss entomologist
45Ceriagrion tenellumCeriagrion: Selys, 1876
probably a reference to the type species Agrion cerinorubellum Brauer, 1865
Ceriagrion tenellum (de Villers, 1789)
from Lat. tener, dimin. tenellus, -a, -um = delicate, tender
46Ceriagrion georgifreyiCeriagrion georgifreyi Schmidt, 1953
after Georg Frey (1902-1976), German naturalist
47Nehalennia speciosaNehalennia: Selys, 1850
after Nehalennia, a fertility goddess of the Lower Rhine area in Roman times
Nehalennia speciosa (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. speciosus, -a, -um = splendid, rich in appearance
48Aeshna mixtaAeshna: Fabricius, 1775
of uncertain origin
Aeshna mixta Latreille, 1805
from Lat. mixtus, -a, -um = mixed
⮎ for the mixed colours of the spots on the male's abdomen
49Aeshna affinisAeshna affinis Vander Linden, 1820
from Lat. affinis, -is, -e = similar, adjacent, akin
⮎ for its similarity to A. mixta
50Aeshna isocelesAeshna isoceles (Müller, 1767)
from Grk. ἴσος, , -ον = same +
σκέλος = leg
⮎ for the yellow mark on S2 in the shape of an isosceles triangle
51Aeshna grandisAeshna grandis (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. grandis, -is, -e = large, grand
⮎ the largest species described by Linnaeus
52Aeshna caeruleaAeshna caerulea (Ström, 1783)
from Lat. caeruleus, -a, -um = sky blue
⮎ for the blue spots on the male's abdomen
53Aeshna cyaneaAeshna cyanea (Müller, 1764)
from Lat. cyaneus, -a, -um = sea-blue
⮎ for the blue spots on the male's abdomen
54Aeshna viridisAeshna viridis Eversmann, 1836
from Lat. viridis, -is, -e = green
⮎ for the colour of the thorax
55Aeshna junceaAeshna juncea (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. junceus, -a, -um = having rushes
[juncus = rush]
⮎ for the presence of rushes in the species' typical habitat
56Aeshna subarcticaAeshna subarctica Walker, 1908
from Lat. sub- = below +
arcticus, -a, -um = arctic
⮎ denotes the area below the arctic circle as the species' range
57Aeshna serrataAeshna serrata Hagen, 1856
from Lat. serratus, -a, -um = serrated
⮎ for the row of teeth on the male's upper appendages
58Aeshna crenataAeshna crenata Hagen, 1856
from Lat. crenatus, -a, -um = notched, serrated
[crena = notch]
⮎ for the row of teeth (notches) on the male's upper appendages
59Anax imperatorAnax: Leach, 1815
from Grk. ἄναξ = master, ruler, king
Anax imperator Leach, 1815
from Lat. imperator = commander, emperor
60Anax parthenopeAnax parthenope (Selys, 1839)
from Grk. Παρθενόπη, an ancient Greek name for today's city of Naples, near which the first specimens were collected
61Anax ephippigerAnax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
from Grk. ἐφίππιον = (pad) saddle +
Lat. -ger, -gera, -gerum = -bearing
⮎ for the (light-blue) saddle on S2
62Anax immaculifronsAnax immaculifrons Rambur, 1842
from Lat. immaculatus, -a, -um = unstained +
frons = forehead
⮎ for the frons unmarked by black bars
63Brachytron pratenseBrachytron: Evans, 1845
from Grk. βραχύνω = to abbreviate +
ἦτρον = abdomen
⮎ in allusion to the abdomen being short and stout
Brachytron pratense (Müller, 1764)
from Lat. pratensis, -is, -e = found in meadows
[pratum = meadow]
⮎ for the supposed typical habitat of the species
64Boyeria ireneBoyeria: McLachlan, 1896
after Étienne Boyer de Fonscolombe (1772-1853), French entomologist
Boyeria irene (Fonscolombe, 1838)
probably after Εἰρήνη, the Greek goddess of peace
65Boyeria cretensisBoyeria cretensis Peters, 1991
from Lat. cretensis, -is, -e = Cretan
[Crete = Crete]
⮎ the species is endemic to Crete
66Caliaeschna microstigmaCaliaeschna: Selys, 1883
from Grk. καλός = beautiful +
Aeschna: of uncertain origin
Caliaeschna microstigma (Schneider, 1845)
from Grk. μικρός, , -όν = small +
στίγμα = mark, spot
⮎ for the small pterostigma
67Gomphus vulgatissimusGomphus: Leach, 1815
from Grk. γόμφος = bolt, rivet, peg
Gomphus vulgatissimus (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. vulgatus, superl. vulgatissimus, -a, -um = most widespread, most familiar
68Gomphus schneideriiGomphus schneiderii Selys, 1850
after Wilhelm Gottlieb Schneider (1814-1889), German entomologist
69Gomphus grasliniiGomphus graslinii Rambur, 1842
after Adolphe Hercule de Graslin (1802-1882), French lepidopterist
70Gomphus simillimusGomphus simillimus Selys, 1840
from Lat. similis, superl. simillimus, -a, -um = most similar
⮎ considered by Selys to be most similar to G. pulchellus
71Gomphus pulchellusGomphus pulchellus Selys, 1840
from Lat. pulcher, dimin. pulchellus, -a, -um = pretty
72Stylurus flavipesStylurus: Needham, 1897
from Grk. στῦλος = pillar, pole +
οὐρά = tail
⮎ possibly for the long and narrow ninth abdominal segment in the larvae
Stylurus flavipes (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. flavus, -a, -um = yellow +
pes = foot, leg
⮎ for the extensively yellow legs
73Ophiogomphus ceciliaOphiogomphus: Selys, 1854
from Grk. ὄφις = snake +
connecting vowel -ο-+
γόμφος = bolt, rivet, peg
Ophiogomphus cecilia (Fourcroy, 1785)
after the French girl's name Cécile, a name apparently randomly chosen by Geoffroy
74Onychogomphus uncatusOnychogomphus: Selys, 1854
from Grk. ὄνυξ (stem: ὀνυχ) = nail, claw, hook +
connecting vowel -ο-+
γόμφος = bolt, rivet, peg
⮎ for the shape of the male's lower appendage
Onychogomphus uncatus (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. uncatus, -a, -um = armed with a hook or hooks
[uncus = hook]
⮎ for the shape of the male's appendages
75Onychogomphus forcipatusOnychogomphus forcipatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. forcipatus, -a, -um = armed with pincers
[forceps = pincers]
⮎ for the shape of the male's appendages
76Onychogomphus cazumaOnychogomphus cazuma (Barona, Cardo & Díaz, 2020)
after the river Cazuma in the Valencia province of Spain, where the species was first discovered
77Onychogomphus costaeOnychogomphus costae Selys, 1885
after Achille Costa (1823-1898), Italian entomologist
78Paragomphus geneiParagomphus: Cowley, 1934
from Grk. παρά = beside, close to +
γόμφος = bolt, rivet, peg
⮎ for the close similarity to Gomphus species
Paragomphus genei (Selys, 1841)
after Carlo Giuseppe Genè (1800-1847), Italian naturalist
79Lindenia tetraphyllaLindenia: de Haan, 1826
after Pierre Léonard Vander Linden (1797-1831), Belgian entomologist
Lindenia tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825)
Latinized feminine form from Grk. τετρα- = four +
-φυλλος, -ος, -ον = -leafed
[φύλλον = leaf]
⮎ for the four broad flaps on the side of S7 and S8
80Cordulegaster boltoniiCordulegaster: Leach, 1815
from Grk. κορδύλη = cudgel, club +
γαστήρ = belly
⮎ for the club-shaped abdomen
Cordulegaster boltonii (Donovan, 1807)
after Thomas Bolton (1722-1778), the English naturalist who first discovered the species in Yorkshire
81Cordulegaster trinacriaeCordulegaster trinacriae Waterston, 1976
gen. of Grk. Τρινακρία, an ancient Greek name for Sicily
⮎ the island from which the first specimen was described
82Cordulegaster herosCordulegaster heros Theischinger, 1979
from Grk. ἥρως = hero
⮎ for the species' enormous size
83Cordulegaster pictaCordulegaster picta Selys, 1854
from Lat. pictus, -a, -um = painted
84Cordulegaster bidentataCordulegaster bidentata Selys, 1843
from Lat. bi- = twice +
dentatus, -a, -um = toothed
[dens = tooth]
⮎ for the two teeth underneath each of the male's upper appendages
85Cordulegaster insignisCordulegaster insignis Schneider, 1845
from Lat. insignis, -is, -e = conspicuous, distinguished
86Cordulegaster helladicaCordulegaster helladica (Lohmann, 1993)
from Grk. Ἑλλαδικός, , -όν = of Greece, Greek (the species is endemic to southern Greece)
87Oxygastra curtisiiOxygastra: Selys, 1870
Latinized feminine form from Grk. ὀξύς = sharp, pointed +
-γαστρος = -bellied
⮎ for the male's elongated, downward-pointed abdominal segment 10
Oxygastra curtisii (Dale, 1834)
after John Curtis (1791-1862), English entomologist
88Macromia splendensMacromia: Rambur, 1842
Latinized feminine form from Grk. μακρός = long, large +
-ώμιος = -shouldered
Macromia splendens (Pictet, 1843)
from Lat. splendere, pres. part. splendens = shining, glittering
⮎ for the green metallic sheen on the side of the thorax
89Cordulia aeneaCordulia: Leach, 1815
from Grk. κορδύλειος = clubbed
[κορδύλη = cudgel, club]
⮎ for the club-shaped abdomen, especially of the male
Cordulia aenea (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. aeneus, -a, -um = of copper, bronze, bronze-coloured
⮎ for the extensive bronze-coloured reflections
90Somatochlora metallicaSomatochlora: Selys, 1871
from Grk. σῶμα (stem: σωματ-) = body +
χλωρός = green
Somatochlora metallica (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Grk. μεταλλικός, , -όν = of metal, metallic
⮎ for the extensive metallic reflections
91Somatochlora meridionalisSomatochlora meridionalis Nielsen, 1935
from Lat. meridionalis, -is, -e = southern
⮎ in reference to the species' southern European range
92Somatochlora flavomaculataSomatochlora flavomaculata (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Lat. flavus, -a, -um = yellow +
maculatus, -a, -um = spotted
⮎ for the extensive yellow spots laterally on the abdomen
93Somatochlora arcticaSomatochlora arctica (Zetterstedt, 1840)
from Lat. arcticus, -a, -um = arctic
⮎ in reference to the species' northerly range
94Somatochlora alpestrisSomatochlora alpestris (Selys, 1840)
from Lat. alpestris, -is, -e = of the Alps
⮎ where the specimens described by Selys were taken
95Somatochlora sahlbergiSomatochlora sahlbergi Trybom, 1889
after Johan Reinhold Sahlberg (1845-1920), Finnish entomologist
96Somatochlora borisiSomatochlora borisi Marinov, 2001
after Boris Marinov, son of Milen Marinov who described the species
97Epitheca bimaculataEpitheca: Burmeister, 1839
from Grk. ἐπί = on, over +
θήκη = sheath, scabbard
⮎ for the female's very large vulvar scale
Epitheca bimaculata (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. bi- = twice +
maculatus, -a, -um = spotted
⮎ for the two large dark spots at the hindwing bases
98Libellula quadrimaculataLibellula: Linnaeus, 1758
dimin. of Lat. libella, the word which in Linnaeus' time was used for dragonflies in general
Libellula quadrimaculata Linnaeus, 1758
from Lat. quadri- = four times +
maculatus, -a, -um = spotted
⮎ for the four spots at the wing nodes
99Libellula depressaLibellula depressa Linnaeus, 1758
from Lat. deprimere, past part. depressus, -a, -um = flattened
⮎ for the broad, flattened shape of the abdomen
100Libellula fulvaLibellula fulva Müller, 1764
from Lat. fulvus, -a, -um = tawny, reddish yellow
⮎ for the colouration of females and immature animals; mature, pruinescent males were initially believed to be a separate species
101Orthetrum cancellatumOrthetrum: Newman, 1833
from Grk. ὀρθός = straight, parallel +
ἦτρον = abdomen
⮎ Newman described Orthetrum species as having the 'abdomen laterally parallel' (as distinct from Sympetrum species, which have the 'abdomen laterally compressed')
Orthetrum cancellatum (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. cancellatus, -a, -um = latticed, grated
[cancellus = grid, lattice, grate]
⮎ for the criss-cross pattern of black stripes on the yellow abdomen in females and immature males
102Orthetrum albistylumOrthetrum albistylum (Selys, 1848)
from Lat. albus, -a, -um = white +
stilus = pointed stick, pen, stylus (the latter word is used in entomology to refer to the upper appendages)
⮎ for the male's white upper appendages
103Orthetrum coerulescensOrthetrum coerulescens (Fabricius, 1798)
from Lat. caerulescere, pres. part. caerulescens = becoming blue, somewhat blue
⮎ probably in reference to the increase in blue pruinescence in maturing males
104Orthetrum brunneumOrthetrum brunneum (Fonscolombe, 1837)
from Lat. brunneus, -a, -um = brown
⮎ for the colouration of immature animals; mature, pruinescent males were initially believed to be a separate species.
105Orthetrum nitidinerveOrthetrum nitidinerve (Selys, 1841)
from Lat. nitidus, -a, -um = bright, shining +
-nervis, -is, -e = veined
[nervus = tendon, vein]
⮎ for the bright yellow radial between the wing base and the node
106Orthetrum chrysostigmaOrthetrum chrysostigma (Burmeister, 1839)
from Grk. χρυσός = gold +
στίγμα = mark, spot
⮎ for the golden pterostigma (rather than the yellow spot at the base of the hindwing)
107Orthetrum taeniolatumOrthetrum taeniolatum (Schneider, 1845)
from Lat. taeniolatus, -a, -um = adorned with a small ribbon
[taeniola = small ribbon]
⮎ in reference to the 'embossed' ring around the frons, which Schneider considered characteristic of the species
108Orthetrum trinacriaOrthetrum trinacria (Selys, 1841)
from Grk. Τρινακρία, an ancient Greek name for Sicily
⮎ the island from which the first specimen was described
109Orthetrum sabinaOrthetrum sabina (Drury, 1773)
from Lat. Sabina = a Sabine woman (the Sabines were a people neighbouring the newly-founded city of Rome in Roman legend)
110Leucorrhinia dubiaLeucorrhinia: Brittinger, 1850
feminine form of an artificial adjective derived from Grk. λευκός = white +
ῥίς; ῥινός = nose
Leucorrhinia dubia (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Lat. dubius, -a, -um = doubtful, uncertain
⮎ in reference to Vander Linden's doubt whether or not this species was the same as Linnaeus' L. rubicunda
111Leucorrhinia rubicundaLeucorrhinia rubicunda (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. rubicundus, -a, -um = suffused with red, ruddy
⮎ for the red spots dorsally on the male's abdomen
112Leucorrhinia pectoralisLeucorrhinia pectoralis (Charpentier, 1825)
from Lat. pectoralis, -is, -e = concerning the breast
[pectus = breast]
⮎ Charpentier believed the coloured spots on the thorax to be diagnostic (considering Linnaeus had described L. rubicunda as having a black thorax)
113Leucorrhinia albifronsLeucorrhinia albifrons (Burmeister, 1839)
from Lat. albus, -a, -um = white +
frons = forehead
114Leucorrhinia caudalisLeucorrhinia caudalis (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. caudalis, -is, -e = concerning the tail
[cauda = tail]
⮎ for the male's flattened and club-shaped abdomen
115Sympetrum danaeSympetrum: Newman, 1833
from Grk. συμπιέζω = to squeeze together +
ἦτρον = abdomen
⮎ Newman described Sympetrum species as having the 'abdomen laterally compressed' (as distinct from Orthetrum species, which have the 'abdomen laterally parallel')
Sympetrum danae (Sulzer, 1776)
after Δανάη, daughter of Akrisios and mother of Perseus in Greek mythology
116Sympetrum pedemontanumSympetrum pedemontanum (Müller in Allioni, 1766)
after the Italian region of Piemonte (from Lat. ad pedes montium, adj. pedemontanus), where the species was first discovered
117Sympetrum sanguineumSympetrum sanguineum (Müller, 1764)
from Lat. sanguineus, -a, -um = blood-red
[sanguis = blood]
⮎ for the blood-red colour of the male's abdomen
118Sympetrum depressiusculumSympetrum depressiusculum (Selys, 1841)
from Lat. depressus, -a, -um = low, flattened (comparative: depressior, -or, -ius) +
connecting consonant -c- +
dimin. suffix -ulus, -a, -um = somewhat, a little
⮎ for the somewhat more flattened shape of the male's abdomen
119Sympetrum flaveolumSympetrum flaveolum (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. flaveolus, -a, -um = somewhat golden yellow
[flavus = golden yellow]
⮎ for the large yellow wing patches
120Sympetrum fonscolombiiSympetrum fonscolombii (Selys, 1840)
after Étienne Boyer de Fonscolombe (1772-1853), French entomologist
121Sympetrum striolatumSympetrum striolatum (Charpentier, 1840)
from Lat. striolatus, -a, -um = with little furrows
[stria = furrow]
⮎ presumably for the furrowed underside of the abdomen
122Sympetrum vulgatumSympetrum vulgatum (Linnaeus, 1758)
from Lat. vulgatus, -a, -um = common, widespread, familiar
123Sympetrum meridionaleSympetrum meridionale (Selys, 1841)
from Lat. meridionalis, -is, -e = southern
⮎ in reference to the species' southern European range
124Sympetrum sinaiticumSympetrum sinaiticum Dumont, 1977
after Mount Sinai / the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, from where two females used in Dumont's description were taken
125Crocothemis erythraeaCrocothemis: Brauer, 1868
from Grk. κρόκος = saffron-coloured +
Θέμις or θέμις = (Greek Titaness of) divine order, law as established by custom
Crocothemis erythraea (Brullé, 1832)
from Grk. ἐρυθραῖος, , -ον = red
⮎ for the mature male's body colour
126Trithemis annulataTrithemis: Brauer, 1868
from Grk. τρίς, τρί- = three times, tri-
⮎ for the tri-lobed hind margin of the prothorax +
Θέμις or θέμις = (Greek Titaness of) divine order, law as established by custom
Trithemis annulata (Palisot de Beauvois, 1807)
from Lat. annulatus, -a, -um = adorned with rings
[annulus = ring, ringlet]
⮎ refers to the black front and hind margins of the abdominal segments (Palisot probably had not yet seen other species of the same genus - e.g. Trithemis arteriosa - in which these black margins are actually more obvious)
127Trithemis arteriosaTrithemis arteriosa (Burmeister, 1839)
from Lat. arteriosus, -a, -um = richly veined
[arteria = artery, vein]
⮎ for the extensively red wing venation
128Trithemis kirbyiTrithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891
after William Forsell Kirby (1844-1912), English entomologist
129Trithemis festivaTrithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842)
from Lat. festivus, -a, -um = festive, pretty
[festum = feast]
130Brachythemis impartitaBrachythemis: Brauer, 1868
from Grk. βραχύς = short
⮎ for the short abdomen +
Θέμις or θέμις = (Greek Titaness of) divine order, law as established by custom
Brachythemis impartita (Karsch, 1890)
from Lat. im- = un- +
partitus, -a, -um = divided
⮎ "referring originally to the condition of the Fw triangles and subtriangles"
131Diplacodes lefebvriiDiplacodes: Kirby, 1889
from Grk. δίπλαξ = double, two-sided +
-ώδης = resembling, -like
⮎ resembling (the previously named genus) Diplax
Diplacodes lefebvrii (Rambur, 1842)
after Alexandre Louis Lefèbvre de Cérisy (1798-1867), French entomologist
132Selysiothemis nigraSelysiothemis: Ris, 1897
after Michel Edmond de Sélys Longchamps (1813-1900), Belgian entomologist +
Grk. Θέμις or θέμις = (Greek Titaness of) divine order, law as established by custom
Selysiothemis nigra (Vander Linden, 1825)
from Lat. niger, -gra, -grum = black
⮎ Vander Linden's description is based solely on mature (black) males
133Pantala flavescensPantala: Hagen, 1861
from Grk. πᾶς, παντός = all, every +
ἄλη = wandering or roaming without home or hope of rest
⮎ in reference to the species' wandering behaviour
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)
from Lat. flavescere, pres. part. flavescens = becoming yellow, being yellowish
⮎ Fabricius' description is probably based on immature animals; it contains no reference to the darker, orange-red colouration of the abdomen in mature males
134Zygonyx torridusZygonyx: Selys in Hagen, 1867
from Grk. ζύγον = yoke, homogeneous pair +
ὄνυξ = nail, claw, hook
⮎ in reference to the shape of the tarsi
Zygonyx torridus (Kirby, 1889)
from Lat. (zona) torrida = torrid, tropical (region)
⮎ the species was first described from Sierra Leone, in the West-African tropics